ہوم / صیحَتھ / خواتین کی صحت / خواتین کی صحت
شِیَرکٔرِو

خواتین کی صحت

ٹھیس اس اتکرشگپتا

This topic explains about psychological human development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood and Health problems etc..

Adolescent Health

The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines adolescence both in terms of age (spanning the ages between 10 and 19 years) and in terms of a phase of life marked by special attributes. These attributes include:

  • Rapid physical growth and development
  • Physical, social and psychological maturity but not all at the same time
  • Sexual maturity and the sexual activity
  • Experimentation
  • Development of adult mental processes and adult identity
  • Transition from total socio-economic dependence to relative independence.

Janani Video on Adolescent Health

Double click on film to view full screen.

Presented by Department of Family Welfare, Govt., of Andhra Pradesh.

In India 22.5% are adolescents. During adolescence peak growth and development of the girls’ takes place, which has direct influence on child bearing. Adolescents live in diverse circumstances and have diverse health needs. Adolescents are full of energy, have significant drive and new ideas. Even though mortality is less in this age group, they suffer of various health and nutritional problems which may lead to morbidity and nutritional deficiencies.

Big change is the big challenge

Puberty, which usually begins between the age of 10 and 16, is the gradual process of changing from a child to an adult. Each person starts to change at a different time. Changes in the body, behaviour and lifestyle are some of them.

The changes that occur during the process

  • Hands arms, feet, legs, hips and chest become larger. The body will produce hormones which are special chemical messengers that tell the body how to grow and change.
  • The sexual organs of the body starts growing bigger and begin producing hormones.
  • The skin may become more oily.
  • Presence of hair in arm pits, legs, arms and pubic region.

Basic body care

Here are a few simple and basic things required to take good care of the body.

  • As one reaches puberty, perspiration will be more. Bathing will keep skin clean and prevent bad body odour.
  • Clean the teeth at least twice a day to avoid tooth decay (cavities) and to have a fresh breath.
  • As the oil glands produce much sebum (an oily substance), pimples may develop. Pimples are very normal in adolescence, and there is no way to avoid them altogether. Keeping the skin clean is the best solution.
  • A nutritious diet is a must. Avoid eating too many sweets and fried foods.
  • Think positive as a sound mind is also required for good health.

Getting along with parents

Adolescence is time when many young people and their parents have trouble getting along. Some points that the ‘youth’ should remember and understand to do are:

  • Appreciate one's family.
  • Be understanding of the parent’s beliefs and values.
  • Remember that parents want the best for their children.
  • Be honest and open with parents.
  • Care for parents and be respectful.

Health problems in Adolescents

Mental health

Many mental health problems emerge in late childhood and early adolescence. Enhancing social skills, problem-solving skills and self confidence can help to prevent mental health problems such as conduct disorders, anxiety, depression and eating disorders as well as other risk behaviours including those that relate to sexual behaviour, substance use, and violent behaviour.

Health workers need to have the competencies to relate to young people, to detect mental health problems early, and to provide treatments which include counselling, cognitive-behavioural therapy and, where appropriate, psychotropic medication.

Substance use

In addition to laws that limit the availability of illicit substances, tobacco and alcohol, interventions to reduce demand for these substances improve the conditions for healthy development. Increasing their awareness of the dangers of substance use, building their competence to resist peer pressure and to manage stress in a healthy manner is effective in reducing adolescents' motivation for substance use.

Unintentional injuries

Approaches for reducing road accidents and the occurrence of serious injuries if and when accidents occur, are important for safeguarding adolescent health. These include, enforcing speed limits.

Violence

Life skills and social development programmes for children and adolescents are important for reducing violent behaviour. Supporting teachers and parents to build skills in problem solving and non-violent disciplining is also effective in reducing violence. If violence occurs, actions to make health systems more responsive and to build the empathy and competence of health workers, can ensure that adolescents get effective and sensitive care and treatment. Ongoing psychological and social support can help adolescents deal with the long term psychological effects of violence, and to reduce the likelihood of their becoming perpetuators of violence.

  • Combining education with laws to promote seat belt (and helmet) use and to prevent driving under the influence of alcohol or other psychoactive substances.
  • Providing alternatives to driving by increasing the availability of safe and inexpensive public transport.
  • Actions to make the environment safer and to educate children and adolescents on how to avoid drowning, burns and falls can help reduce the likelihood of their occurrence. When someone is injured, prompt access to effective trauma care can be life saving.

Nutrition

Chronic malnutrition in early years is responsible for widespread stunting and adverse health and social consequences throughout the life span. This is best prevented in childhood but actions to improve access to food could benefit adolescents as well. Anaemia is one of the key nutritional problems in adolescent girls. Preventing too-early pregnancy and improving the nutritional status of girls before they enter pregnancy could reduce maternal and infant mortality, and contribute to breaking the cycle of intergenerational malnutrition. This will involve improving access to nutritious food, to micronutrient supplementation and in many places to preventing infections as well. Adolescence is a timely period to shape healthy eating and exercise habits which can contribute to physical and psychological benefits during the adolescent period and reducing the likelihood of nutrition-related chronic diseases in adulthood. Promoting healthy lifestyles is also crucial to halt the rapidly progressing obesity epidemic.

Adequate nutrition and healthy eating and physical exercise habits at this age are foundations for good health in adulthood.

Sexual and reproductive health

Programmes that aim to educate adolescents about sexual and reproductive health need to be combined with programmes aimed at motivating them to apply what they have learnt in their lives. They should also be combined with efforts to make it easier for adolescents to obtain any preventive or curative health services they might need from competent and empathetic health workers. Sexual coercion in adolescence needs to be fought at different levels. Laws requiring severe punishment for this crime should be passed and energetically enforced, and public opinion should be mobilized to become fiercely intolerant of it. Girls and women should be protected from sexual harassment and coercion in educational institutions, work places and in other community settings.

Preventing too early pregnancy may require the enactment and enforcement of laws that specify a minimum age for marriage, as well as actions to mobilize families and communities to give their daughters the additional time they need to grow and develop from girlhood into womanhood before becoming wives and mothers.

HIV

Young people’s risk of HIV infection is closely correlated with age of sexual debut.

Abstinence from sexual intercourse and delayed initiation of sexual behaviour are among the central aims of HIV prevention efforts for young people. Decreasing the number of sexual partners and increasing access to, and utilization of comprehensive prevention services, including prevention education and provision of condoms, are essential for young people who are sexually active.

Programmes should also focus on prevention and early intervention in other health risk behaviours, such as substance use. Young people need HIV testing services that are accessible and appropriate. Young people living with HIV need treatment, care, support and positive prevention services. All HIV services for young people should involve young people living with HIV in their planning and provision.

Bone Health

Bones are so important that it is vital to keep our bones healthy throughout our lives. Healthy bones provide a strong foundation, allowing mobility and protection from injury. They also serve as a bank for important minerals, such as calcium, that help support numerous organs in our body.

Bones are alive and constantly changing, with new bones being made and old bone lost throughout lives? In adults, the entire skeleton is completely replaced every 7–10 years.

Taking care of bones by proper nourishment and exercise when you are still young will help you to attain good bones helping you to live the life that you love. Here at bone health, you can learn and understand the basics of bone health. We also provide you with realistic and achievable self-management steps like dietary management and exercises to build strong which is the best defense against osteoporosis, a bone disorder that is high in women.

Bone Health Basics

Bones are the living tissues that form the major portion of your skeleton. There are 206 bones in an adult’s body whereas infants have around 300 bones in their body. Bones help you in mobility and protect your internal organs.

Bone structure

bone1

Bone is made up of proteins and other minerals like calcium, phosphate and magnesium. Collagen (a protein), which is a cementing substance, forms the structure and framework of bones.

The basic structural components of a bone are

bone2

Periosteum: This is a thin membrane that covers the outer surface of your bone. It consists of nerves and blood vessels.

Compact bone: This forms the outer layer of all your bones and is very dense. When you look at a skeleton, the compact bone is what you see.

Cancellous bone: This looks like a sponge and is not as hard as the compact bone. It covers the bone marrow which is the innermost part of your bone.

Bone growth

growth

Bones continuously keep undergoing a vigorous process of resorption (removal of old bone) and deposition (formation of new bone) known as bone metabolism.

There are two major Cells involved in the resorption and deposition of your bones. They are:

  • Osteoblasts: These are Cells that are responsible for the formation of new bones
  • Osteoclasts: These are Cells that are responsible for the breaking down of bones

It is with the cooperation of these Cells that your body maintains proper balance of minerals required for your body’s physiological functions. The process of resorption and deposition goes on throughout life.

Diet and bone health

diet1

Intake of adequate calcium is necessary to maintain healthy bones since your bone contains 99% of the calcium present in your body. Other important nutrients include phosphorus, magnesium, fluoride and vitamin K. Foods that are rich in calcium are milk and dairy products.

Vitamin D is required for proper absorption of calcium from food. Sunlight provides your body with enough vitamin D which is absorbed by your skin.

It can also be obtained through dietary sources such as fortified milk, vitamin D-fortified foods and fatty fish.

Factors affecting bone health

diet2

There are various factors that affect bone health.

  • Genetics: Bone disorders can run in the family. If your parents or siblings have had bone problems, you are more likely to get it. Certain ethnic groups have comparatively stronger bones than other ethnic groups
  • Diet: Adequate calcium and vitamin D is required for healthy bones. Cigarette smoking and consuming alcohol increase the risk of bone loss
  • Physical activity: Regular exercises and physical activity strengthen your bones
  • Age: The strength of your bones decreases with age. You are more likely to develop bone problems as you reach Menopause
  • Body size: Thin and underweight women tend to have weaker bones

One can maintain healthy bones with a calcium rich diet and physical exercise. Bone disorders can affect the quality of life.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis occurs when there is a loss of mineral content from bone mainly in the form of calcium. Osteoporosis mainly affects women, although it also affects men, but in a smaller percentage.

Osteoporosis shows no symptoms and is usually part of the normal aging process. However some women develop the disease early in life due to other co-existing disease factors. Women also run the risk of developing it post Menopause. Since it displays no symptoms it is only when you get a fracture or recurrent fractures, that your doctor will suspect osteoporosis.

Your doctor will evaluate the loss of mineral from your bones through tests which will determine your Bone Mineral Density (BMD).

Preventing osteoporosis

The development of strong bones begins early in life. Staying healthy throughout life is an excellent way to keep your bones healthy. The factors essential for healthy bones are:

Hormones: The production of the Hormone Estrogen is vital in adolescent females and young women so as to maintain bone mass. A shortage of Estrogen occurs in the following conditions, affecting bone mass and could lead to osteoporosis:

  • Absence of periods
  • Infrequent menstrual cycles
  • Delay in the onset of the first period
  • Early menopause

Lifestyle:

lifestyle

Smoking affects bone health and results in a substantial loss of bone mass (bone mineral density) in women. Besides osteoporotic women who continue to smoke while on medication for osteoporosis, fail to achieve the full benefits of treatment. Women who consume
excessive alcohols are also at risk for osteoporosis.
Other lifestyle factors that can lead to osteoporosis are:

  • Insufficient calcium intake,
  • Very minimal physical activity,
  • Excessive caffeine intake,
  • Excessive alcohol intake and

Nutrition

Calcium: Calcium is one of the most essential nutrients necessary for you to reach the highest level of bone strength. To prevent osteoporosis you should eat a well balanced diet with adequate amounts of dairy products, which are the primary source of foods rich in calcium.

Vitamin D: Vitamin D serves many important functions in relation to calcium metabolism. It helps increase your calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal system and kidney and thereby makes it available to your body tissues and blood. It also functions to help with the deposition of calcium to your bones.

Recommended daily calcium intake

Category

Age(yrs)

Calcium(mg)

Children

1-3

500

4-8

700

Girls

9-11

1000

12-18

1300

Women

19-50

1000

>50

1300

Pregnancy/Lactation

14-18

1300

19-30

1000

31-50

1000

Average calcium content of various foods

Dairy

Food Source

Serve Size

Calcium

Regular milk

1 cup (250 ml)

285

Skim milk

1 cup (250 ml)

310

Natural yogurt

1 tub (200 g)

340

Low fat yogurt

1 tub (200 g)

420

Cheddar cheese

40 g cube

310

Low fat cottage cheese

100 g

80

Non-Diary

White bread

1 slice

15

Cooked spinach

1 cup (340 g)

170

Canned salmon (+ bones)

½ cup

230

Canned sardines (+bones)

50 g

190

Almonds

15 Almonds

50

Bones go through a constant state of bone loss and re-growth. As you age, more bone loss than bone growth can occur which is a normal and natural process. To increase your chances of staying healthy, exercise every day and get enough calcium and vitamin D. Seek your doctor’s advice about ways to prevent osteoporosis or the treatment options available.

Exercise for Bones

As you age, body goes through many changes. Some of the major changes that occur in your body as you get older are:

  • Bone mass and density decrease
  • Muscle size and strength decrease
  • Tendons and Ligaments become less elastic
  • Cartilage degeneration and joint inflammation occur

The above bodily changes put you at an increased risk of fractures, various injuries, osteoporosis and arthritis. Exercising everyday can help prevent the above complications and provide a lot of relief in some chronic conditions such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Regular exercise can also help prevent bone loss and allows you to maintain muscle strength, coordination, and balance, which in turn help to prevent falls and related fractures.

Before you begin an exercise program, consult your doctor. Perform only the exercises advised by your doctor. Do not follow an exercise regimen of your own, because your doctor may recommend certain restrictions based on your individual health status.

Source: Indianwomenshealth

Related Resources

  1. A Strategic Approach to Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (RMNCH+A) in India
  2. Anaemia Facts - Handout for Adolescent Boys and Girls (10-19 Years)
3.83333333333
پَنٕنی راے دِیِو اَگَر تۄہہِ ہیرمِس مَوادَس مُتلِق کانہہ تَبصرٕ کَرُن چھُ یا کانہہ راے چھیے، میہَربٲنی کتھ کِرِتھ کٔرِو ییتیتھ پوسٹ
Enter the word
Back to top